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Case Studies
Water Management Associations
The Nuisance Zebra Mussels
Zebra mussels, a freshwater aquatic nuisance, which grow to about the size of a dime and live up to eight years, are rapidly invading North American lakes.

Zebra mussels have three main effects on the water bodies they invade.

• Ecological
Zebra mussels siphon a liter of water per day to live. They act as filters and clear the water of food necessary for small larval fish to survive – ultimately starving the top of the food chain – the walleye, catfish, and Northern Pike. The clear water is certainly desirable, but water that is too clear allows sunlight to reach the bottom creating ideal growing conditions for invasive aquatic plants like watermilfoil and flowering rush.

• Recreational
Clear waters as mentioned above not only kill off fish leaving anglers to find new fishing spots, but the number of invasive aquatic plants make water transportation difficult often getting tangled in engine propellers. The additional plant growth hinders swimming, boating, and paddling/canoeing. The zebra mussels can cause bodily harm with their razor-sharp shells and because they attach themselves to hard surfaces such as docks and boats, they are easily spread from lake to lake.

• Industrial
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimated zebra mussels have cost Great Lakes region’s water and power plants close to $5 billion in the past decade to clear clogged intake pipes. Annually zebra mussel-related maintenance was estimated to be around $100 - $200 million.

Read More about the Threat and Prevention


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Gulf Of Mexico Dead Zone - A report from the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium has a grim outlook for the ocean basin. An annual algae bloom that decays and expends oxygen from the water, killing any biodiversity in the region, is expected to cause a hypoxic zone (also called a dead zone) to expand almost three times larger than normal.

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